Bone, Muscle, and Joint Injuries: How To Treat With First Aid

The musculoskeletal system is made of bones that form the skeleton along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. These things give the body shape, form, and stability. The bones and muscles work together to make body parts move.


A fracture is a break, chip, or crack in a bone. Fractures are usually caused by direct or indirect forces. Strong twisting forces and muscle contractions can also cause a fracture.


A dislocation is a separation of a bone from its normal position at a joint. Dislocations are usually caused by strong forces. Some joints, such as the shoulder or fingers, dislocate relatively easily because their bones and ligaments provide less protection.


A sprain is a tearing of ligaments at a joint when the bones are forced beyond their normal range of motion. The sudden forcing of a joint can completely rupture ligaments and dislocate bones. The bones may also fracture.


A strain is a stretching and tearing of a muscle or tendon. It is sometimes called a muscle pull or tear. Strains often result from lifting something too heavy, working a muscle too hard, or moving suddenly. Strains are common in the neck or back, the front or back of the thigh, or the back of the lower leg.

Muscle Cramps

Although not an injury, muscle cramps are a type of pain that occurs after heavy exercise or if the arm or lef is in the same position for a long time.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Pain.
  • Swelling.
  • Tenderness.
  • Inability to use the injured part.
  • Discoloration of the skin.
  • Deformaty.
  • External bleeding.
  • A feeling of bones grating.
  • A feeling or sound of a snapping at the time of injury.

First Aid

  • Keep the casualty comfortable i.e. have them rest.
  • Immobilize the injured body part in the position found and never move the injury.
  • Apply an cold compress over the area for about 15 minutes every hour except for open fractures.
  • Elevate the injured body part, but only if it does not cause further pain or discomfort.
  • Treat for shock.
  • Seek professional medical help.
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  1. Grandson had a bad hamstring injury and after days of ice baths and heat, it now hurts in the joint/but bone area above the hamstring. What's the best way to treat him? He pulled it running track.

  2. My son hurt his back a few months back playing Gaelic Football .
    When he was falling after been tackled the other player fell on him hitting him with his
    Elbow on his lower right side .
    It looks like bone and mussel damage.
    Is there anything he could be doing to help himself so he can get back to playing?

  3. Vinny
    It depends on which area of the shoulder the person hit you on.
    I think it is possibly a minor sprain or strain.
    Hope it's nothing much too worry about XD

  4. Today i hurt my shoulder playing football, a kid hit me hard and my shoulder hurts whenever i move it but i cant tell if its a bone or muscle hurting

  5. Steph,

    Sorry for the delay in responding. You're probably already feeling better and so you don't really need your question answered. Not that we'd have much to offer since we're very hesitant to offer medical advice over the web.

  6. I slipped and fell on the ice the other day, landing on my tail bone. It doesn't hurt except for when I get up from sitting & for about a minute after sitting for an extended period of time. Is there anything I can do for the pain and to speed up the recovery time?

  7. Avatar photo


    You could be right about the fractured rib. Really hard to tell of course over the web. Best to check in with a doctor. Hopefully all will work out well.

  8. I think my wife has fractured a rib. She is in pain in her right side and it hurts when she moves, breathes, and most of all, when she coughs. Coughing is what brought on this event.

  9. Avatar photo


    There may in fact be nothing to do other than wrap the injury, but seeing a doctor is still a good idea.

  10. My son has appeared to have broken his knuckle. Someone told me to wrap his hand up for there is nothing much they can do for it. Any suggestions

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