The Big List of Trees and Shrubs for Bonsai

To give you the widest choice when you select material for a bonsai, this dictionary provides a total list of over 250 trees and shrubs which are suitable for bonsai cultivation. It lists the plants in alphabetical order of their botanical names, followed by their common names, where applicable. Sub-species, forms, and cultivars are listed alphabetically immediately after the entry on the main species. Every entry briefly describes the characteristics of the tree or shrub, and suggests bonsai styles and sizes that specially suit it. Advice on cultivation is also included.

Bonsai Terms in the Shape of a Tree

How to Use the Dictionary

Over 250 trees and shrubs that are suitable for bonsai are listed in this dictionary. Most of them are species, but many excellent subspecies, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars are included with their parent species, and both the similarities or differences to the species are pointed out.

The plants are listed under their botanical names in alphabetical order. If a plant has two names, its main entry is under the name most commonly used, with the synonym given in brackets. The synonym is also included in the correct alphabetical order, with a cross-reference to the main entry. The common name of every plant is also given.

Descriptions

Every tree and shrub featured is described briefly, indicating characteristics such as growth rate, size, and hardiness, leaf shape and size, as well as any autumn tints or unusual coloring. Flowers or fruits are also detailed, together with bark texture.

Styles and Sizes

Styles given are those likely to be successful, rather than absolute definitions: the species and character of the individual free will affect your choice. If a plant makes a good accent or accessory plant, this is also mentioned. The sizes given are based on the natural size of a plant or the fineness of its leaves or twigs. These sizes are: extra-large, over 36 inches (90 cm); large, 18-36 inches (45-90 cm); medium, 8-18 inches (20-45 cm); small, 4-8 inches (10-20 cm) and extra-small, up to 4 inches (10 cm).

Cultivation Details

The plant's various care requirements and methods of propagation are given under appropriate headings i.e. Positioning, Watering, Feeding, Repotting, Pruning, Propagation. If one or more forms of a species, or one or more related species, are suited to the same styles or sizes, or have similar care needs, these details are not repeated in every entry. Instead, the entries of the various forms, or related species, have a cross-reference to the main species entry.

Abies alba, SILVER FIR

An evergreen conifer with cylindrical cones and dark green, needle-like leaves. Suitable styles are formal upright, informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, literati, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous, multiple-trunk, group, and saikei styles; best sizes are medium to extra-large.

Position: Slight shade.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks, early spring to mid fall.
Repotting: Every other year, in spring or fall, using basic soil mix.
Pruning: Finger pinch new shoots during growing season.
Propagation: Seeds; layering; cuttings.

Abies koreana, KOREAN FIR

A slow-growing, small, evergreen conifer with dark green leaves. The cones are purple even on a young tree. See A. alba for styles, sizes, and care.

Abies koreana ‘Compact dwarf, DWARF KOREAN FIR

A dwarf form of A. koreana that does not produce cones. Best sizes are extra-small and small.

Propagation: Grafting.

See A. alba for styles and other care details.

Abies lasiocarpa, ALPINE FIR

An evergreen conifer with gray-green, needle-like leaves. See A. alba for styles, sizes, and care.

Abies lasiocarpa arizonica, CORK FIR

This has silver-gray, needle-like leaves and thick, corky bark. See A. alba for styles, sizes, and care.

Abies lasiocarpa arizonica ‘Compacta', DWARF CORK FIR

A dwarf form, with notable silvery blue-gray foliage.

Propagation: Grafting.

See A. alba for styles and other care details.

Acer buergerianum (A. trifidium), TRIDENT MAPLE

A deciduous tree, with wonderful orange and red autumn colors. Suits all styles, except broom, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep fairly dry in winter.
Feeding: Weekly for month after leaves open, then every two weeks to late summer.Repotting: Annually in early spring as buds swell. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots during growing season. Leaf cut in midsummer.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds; air layering.

Acer buergerianum formosanum, FORMOSAN TRIDENT MAPLE

A more compact subspecies, with thick, leathery leaves. See A. buergerianum for styles, sizes, and care.

Acer buergerianum ‘Mino Yatsubusa', DWARF TRIDENT MAPLE

This dwarf variety has a pointed apex. In the fall, its long, narrow, shiny leaves look as if they are lacquered red and orange. See A. buergerianum for styles, sizes, and care.

Acer campestre, HEDGE MAPLE

A small, deciduous tree with a fairly coarse structure. In the fall, the leaves turn bright yellow. Suits all styles, except literati, and extra-small and medium to large sizes.

Position: Full sun, some shade in summer. Protect extra-small bonsai from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep just moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer. Repothng Every two or three years as buds swell. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots throughout growing season. Leaf cut in midsummer.
Propagation: Cuttings, seeds, air layering.

Acer ginnala, AMUR MAPLE

This is a deciduous tree that greatly resembles A. buergerianum, but very frost-tolerant. It is frequently planted in colder climates.

Position: Full sun.

Repotting: Each early spring. Free-draining soil mix.

See A. buergerianum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer japonicum, FULL MOON MAPLE

A deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves that turn red, orange, and bright yellow in the fall. All styles except broom; medium to large, but also extra-small, sizes.

Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; grafting; layering; air layering.

See A. buergerianum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum, JAPANESE MAPLE

This classic bonsai subject is a deciduous tree, with five-lobed leaves that turn red in the fall, and bark that turns silver with age. There are over 250 cultivars. It suits all styles, except literati, and all sizes.

Positioning Full sun, some shade in summer.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep just moist in winter.
Feeding: Weekly for a month after leaves appear, then every two weeks until late summer.
Repotting: Every other year for first ten years, then as necessary. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots in spring; leaf cut in midsummer.
Propagation: Seeds, cuttings, layering, air layering.

Acer palmatum ‘Chishio'

Similar to the species, but with crimson spring foliage. Once the most often grown red maple in bonsai; now mainly superseded by ‘Deshojo'.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering. See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Deshojo'

The hardiest of the palmatum cultivars, with red spring foliage that is particularly brilliant.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering. See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Dissectum', CUT-LEAF JAPANESE MAPLE

This acer has finely cut, green leaves with seven to eleven lobes. In the fall, they turn red. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in all sizes.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Dissectum atropurpureum', CUT-LEAF PURPLE MAPLE

A variety with purple leaves that turn bright orange in the fall. Suitable for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, and clump styles, and all sizes.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Dissectum atropurpureum' ‘Inaba shidare', CUT-LEAF PURPLE MAPLE

The leaves of this outstanding cultivar are a deep purple-red in spring and summer, before they turn crimson in the fall. Suits are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump styles. Grow this shrub in all sizes.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Kagiri Nishiki'

The leaves are a deep bluish-green with creamy white margins suffused with pink. In the fall, they turn rose-red.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Kashima'

A very dwarf form, with leaves that appear early in spring as a light yellow-green with a reddish margin. They deepen to rich green, before turning bright yellow in the fall. Best styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, and clump. All sizes are suitable.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Katsura'

The foliage of this dwarf ‘Yatsubusa' form is apricot in spring and, in the fall, changes to orange and yellow. Grow this shrub in informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, and clump styles, and in all sizes.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Kiyohime'

This very early ‘Yatsubusa' form is very small and grows horizontally without a central leader shoot. Suitable in all styles and sizes except literati, but especially good in broom style and smaller sizes.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Nishiki gawa', PINE BARK MAPLE

The corky bark of this variety becomes very thick while the tree is fairly young. The leaves turn red in the fall. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, and clump styles are best, and all sizes are suitable.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering. See A. palmatum for other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Sango Kaku', ‘SANGO KAKU' MAPLE

A variety with vivid coral-pink bark. The pink twigs are best appreciated in winter; in spring, the green leaves have red margins.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Seigen'

In spring, the foliage is a translucent pink and red, although very sensitive to wind at this time. In the fall, it turns red and orange.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Ukigomo', JAPANESE MAPLE ‘UKIGOMO'

The light green leaves are subtly variegated in white and pink, some being completely white or completely pink.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See A. palmatum lor styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer palmatum ‘Ukon', UKON MAPLE

In the fall, the lime-green leaves turn yellow and gold. The branches and twigs are also lime-green.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering. See A. palmatum for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Acer trifidium, see Acer buergerianum.

Andromeda japonica, see Pieris japonica.

Andromeda polifolia, BOG ROSEMARY

A shrub with narrow, evergreen leaves; in early summer, it produces heather-like, pink flowers. Hates lime. Good styles are clump and saikei; also grown as an accent plant. Extra-small and small sizes.

Position: Slight shade.
Watering: Keep soil moist during growing season.
Feeding: Monthly in summer. Acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Annually in spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowering.
Propagation: Cuttings; division.

Arundinaria nitida, BAMBOO

Grass-like, evergreen leaves are borne on strong, arching canes. Suits multiple-trunk style, and extra-small and small sizes.

Positioning Partial shade. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily, but do not leave standing in water.
Feeding: Every two weeks in spring and summer. Use high-nitrogen fertilizer.
Repotting: Every other year in late spring. Basic soil mix in shallow pots, free-draining mix in deep pots.
Pruning: Cut back in early spring.
Propagation: Division.

Arundinaria pygmaea, DWARF BAMBOO

This dwarf species grows up to 10 inches (25 cm) in nature, but much less in a shallow pot. See A. nitida for styles, sizes, and care.

Azalea indica, see Rhododendron indicum.

Berberis buxifolia, BARBERRY

This semi-evergreen shrub's box-like leaves are deep green on top, gray underneath. Gold spring flowers are followed in the fall by purple fruits. Best styles are informal upright, slanting, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, group, sinuous, and saikei, in extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun or shade.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year, in early spring before bud break. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth during summer.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; division; layering.

Betula nana, DWARF BIRCH

The tiny, serrated leaves on this shrub turn rich gold in the fall before they fall. The trunk is copper-colored. Suitable styles are informal upright, slanting, broom, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous, group, and saikei, in extra-small and small sizes.

Position: Full sun or part shade. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Keep just moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks, from one month after leaves open to end of growing season.
Repotting: Every other year before bud burst in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth constantly.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Betula pendula, EUROPEAN WHITE or SILVER BIRCH

This tree has distinctive, silver-white bark, and heart-shaped, deciduous leaves that turn gold in the fall. Suits informal upright, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in extra-small to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun or part shade. Protect in bad frosts.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks, from one month after leaves open to late summer.
Repotting: Every second year before bud burst in early spring, until tree is ten years old, then as necessary. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots in spring and at each flush of growth. Use wound sealant.
Propagation: Seeds.

Bougainvillea buttiana, BOUGAINVILLEA

This tender climber has deep-red, flower-like bracts and semi-evergreen, oval leaves. It is suitable for all styles except formal upright, broom, and literati, and for medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Minimum temperature 45°F (7°C).
Watering: Daily during summer, sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every three to four years in spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Continually trim back compact plant.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Buxus microphylla, JAPANESE BOX

This compact shrub has small, oblong, dark green leaves which are evergreen. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, group, and saikei styles, in all sizes.

Position: Full sun or shade. Protect from frost and cold winds.
Watering: Daily during growing season. In winter, keep always moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Continually trim new growth.
Propagation: Cuttings; division; layering.

Buxus sempervirens, COMMON BOX

This small, evergreen tree or shrub with tiny, dark green leaves is almost indistinguishable from B. microphylla, but is more generally available. Styles, sizes, and cultivation as for B. microphylla.

Calluna vulgaris, HEATHER

The many cultivated varieties of this small, lime-hating, evergreen shrub have fine-textured foliage in different colors. The flowers are often purple, but can be in shades of pink, white, or red. Stems are woody. Suitable styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, literati, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, saikei; also used as an accent plant. Grow it in extra-small and small sizes only.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: None: feeding will discourage flowering.
Repotting: Every three-four years. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Scissor trim foliage to keep compact.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; seeds.

Calluna vulgaris ‘Foxii Nana', DWARF HEATHER

This heather is grown more for its fine, moss-like foliage than for its light purple flowers, which appear only rarely. Best styles are clasped-to-rock and saikei.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See C. vulgaris for sizes and other care details.

Camellia japonica, COMMON CAMELLIA

An impressive, lime-hating shrub with shiny, evergreen leaves. In spring, it produces pink, red, or white flowers. Grow it in informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, and clump styles, and in large or extra-large sizes.

Position: Partial shade. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Use lime-free water. In winter, keep soil always moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season. Use acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Every two to three years in late spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowers fade.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; seeds.

Camellia sasanqua, CAMELLIA

This is the smallest of the camellias, and thus often used for bonsai. It is a lime-hating, evergreen shrub, with small, fragrant, white flowers in winter and early spring. It needs more winter protection than other camellias.

Position: Part shade. Protect from frost and cold winds.

See C. japonica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Caragana arborescens, CHINESE PEA TREE

The compound leaves of this shrubby tree are deciduous, and the pea-type flowers yellow. This native of Siberia is very tough, and can withstand temperatures below freezing. As an indoor bonsai, it also tolerates high temperatures.

Position: Full sun
Watering: Daily or every two days in growing season. Keep dry in winter.
Feeding: Every two-three weeks in growing season.
Repotting: In winter or spring, every other year. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth as it appears. Cut back hard in winter.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Caragana chamlagu, see C. sinica.

Caragana sinica (C. chamlagu), MONGOLIAN REDSHRUB

This shrub bears glossy, oval, serrated, dark green leaves on spiny branches. It is semi-evergreen.
Position: Full sun indoors or out. Protect from frost and freezing winds.

See C. arborescens for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Carmona microphyUa (Ehretia buxifolia), FUKIEN TEA

This tender, evergreen shrub has small, shiny, dark green leaves, white flowers, and red fruits. All styles and sizes are suitable.

Position: Full sun; some shade in summer.
Minimum temperature 60°F (15°C).
Watering: Keep constantly moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks from early spring to early fall; every four to six weeks in winter.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots constantly.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Carpinus betulus, EUROPEAN HORNBEAM

This tree has striped and ridged gray bark. Its grooved, oval leaves turn yellow in the fall before they fall. Suits all styles, except formal upright, and small to extra-large sizes.

Position: Sun or partial shade. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in summer. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Weekly for month after leaf buds open, then every two weeks to late summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring for first ten years, then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth in spring.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Carpinus caroliniana
This hornbeam is hardier than some Carpinus species and has splendid autumn foliage.

See C. betulus for styles, sizes, and care.

Carpinus japonica, JAPANESE HORNBEAM

This tree has prominently grooved, deciduous leaves and produces long catkins in spring.

See C. betulus for styles, sizes, and care.

Carpinus laxiflora, LOOSE-FLOWERED HORNBEAM

This hornbeam with smooth trunk and smallish, glossy leaves bears loose clusters of flowers, that, in the fall, form green fruiting “keys”. See C. betulus for styles, sizes, and care.

Carpinus turczaninowii, KOREAN HORNBEAM

Delicate, branching twigs bear very small leaves that turn orange-red in the fall. See C. betulus for styles, sizes, and care.

Castanea, CHESTNUT

A tree with large, toothed, deciduous leaves and, in spring, white or red flower spikes. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and group styles look good, as do large and extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two or three weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Every other year in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth continually.
Propagation: Seeds.

Cedrus atlantica, ATLAS CEDAR

This evergreen conifer has gray bark, needle-like leaves, and cylindrical cones. Best styles are formal upright, informal upright, twin-trunk, and group, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from extreme temperatures.
Watering: Daily in growing season, less often rest of year. Allow to dry out between waterings.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Every three to five years in spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: In spring, pinch back new shoots, then at each flush of growth.
Propagation: Seeds, cuttings, grafting.

Cedrus atlantica glauca, BLUE CEDAR

A variety with blue-gray bark and foliage.

Propagation: Grafting.

See C. atlantica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Cedrus brevifolia, CYPRIAN CEDAR

This slow-growing evergreen conifer has very short, dark green needles. Suits extra-small to large sizes.

Propagation: Grafting.

See C. atlantica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Cedrus deodara, DEODAR or INDIAN CEDAR

An evergreen conifer with drooping branches and leader stem covered by large needles.

See C. atlantica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Cedrus libani, CEDAR OF LEBANON

This long-lived, slow-growing conifer has dark green, evergreen leaves on horizontal, spreading branches.

See C. atlantica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Celastrus orbiculatus, ORIENTAL BITTERSWEET

In the fall, the leaves of this deciduous climber turn yellow, and its green fruits split open to reveal golden linings and brilliant red seeds. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, clump, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, straight line, and sinuous styles, in small and medium sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Protect small bonsai from frost and cold winds. watering Daily during growing season. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Twice a month in growing season.
Repotting: Annually or every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots after flowering and in late fall.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Cercis canadensis, AMERICAN REDBUD

Pale pink flowers in early summer and bright green, heart-shaped leaves adorn this deciduous tree. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, broom, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and group styles are best, as are medium and large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during summer, sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new growth continually.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering; air layering.

Cercis siliquastrum, JUDAS TREE

This tree has small, heart-shaped, deciduous leaves. In spring, rose-lilac flowers are borne on the bare branches.

See C. canadensis for styles, sizes, and care.

Chaenomeles japonica, JAPANESE FLOWERING QUINCE

A shrub with deciduous, oval leaves, bright red flowers on bare branches in early spring, and yellow fruits. Suits all styles, except formal upright and broom, in extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season; mist-spray unless in flower or fruit. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks from end of flowering to leaf fall.
Repotting: Annually or every other year, in mid fall or early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim in mid fall; remove basal shoots.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; division; grafting (hybrids).

Chaenomeles japonica ‘Chojubai', DWARF JAPANESE FLOWERING QUINCE

This dwarf variety produces flushes of red or white flowers throughout the year.

Propagation: Cuttings; division.

See C. japonica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Chaenomeles sinensis (Pseudocydonia sinensis), CHINESE QUINCE

This small tree has attractive, flaky-textured bark, and glossy, semi-evergreen leaves that in the fall turn from gold through to purple. Small, pink flowers in spring are followed by fragrant, yellow fruits. Suits informal upright, twin-trunk, and group styles, in medium to large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season; water well when fruits are swelling. Sparingly in winter; keep moist.
Feeding: Every two-three weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Every other autumn. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Shorten new shoots in summer and wire while still soft.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Chaenomeles speciosa ‘Nivali's, WHITE FLOWERING QUINCE

This variety bears white flowers in early spring, not the more usual pink or red flowers of other forms.

Feeding: Every two weeks from spring to fall.
Propagation: Grafting; cuttings.

See C. japonica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Chaenomeles x superba (japonica x speciosa), FLOWERING QUINCE HYBRIDS

All these small to medium-sized flowering shrubs have oval leaves, but flowers in different colors.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings.

See C. japonica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Chamaecyparis obtusa, HINOKI CYPRESS

This evergreen conifer has flat, fan-shaped branches. The cones are the size of a pea, and the undersides of the scale-like leaves are edged with blue. All styles, except broom, are good, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun; some shade in summer; Protect from winds.
Watering: Water and mist-spray daily, late spring to early fall. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Every two weeks, early spring to mid fall.
Repotting: Every other year, early to mid spring, for first ten years, then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch out foliage tops in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; grafting.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana Gracilis', DWARF HINOKI CYPRESS

This slow-growing, dwarf variety is cone-shaped with glossy, dark green foliage. Especially suitable for extra-small to medium sizes.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings.

See C. obtusa for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Yatsubusa', DWARF HINOKI CYPRESS

A compact, dwarf form that is slow-growing and naturally cone-shaped. Especially suitable for extra-small to medium sizes.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See C. obtusa for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Plumosa', CYPRESS ‘PLUMOSA'

When young, the frond-like foliage is bright green.

Another form, C. p. ‘Plumosa Aurea', has golden foliage.
Formal upright, informal upright, slanting, twin-trunk, clump, straight-line, sinuous, multiple-trunk, and saikei styles; and all sizes.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See C. obtusa for other care details.

Cornus kousa, KOUSA DOGWOOD

This deciduous shrub produces numerous white flowers in early summer. In the fall, the foliage turns rich bronze and red. The best styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, group, clump, and multiple-trunk. Suitable sizes are medium to extra-large.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer.
Watering: Daily in summer. Do not allow to dry out.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots after flowers fade.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Cornus officinalis, JAPANESE CORNELIAN CHERRY

In early spring, clusters of yellow flowers appear on the bare wood of this deciduous shrub or small tree. Red fruits follow, and the foliage turns red in the fall. Suitable styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, straight line, and sinuous. Grow the plant in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun, partial shade in summer.
Watering: Daily in summer. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks in summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring or early the fall. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots after flowers fade.
Propagation: Layering; seeds.

Corylopsis pauciflora, BUTTERCUP WINTER HAZEL

When young, the small, oval leaves on this lime-hating, deciduous shrub are pink. In early spring, fragrant, yellow flowers are produced. Informal upright, slanting, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous, multiple-trunk, and group styles; medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily in growing season; lime-free water.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season. Use acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots after flowers fade.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Corylopsis spicata, SPIKED WINTER HAZEL

A deciduous shrub with oval leaves and, in spring, fragrant, bright yellow flowers. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous, multiple-trunk, and group styles, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer.
Watering: Daily during summer. feeding Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year after flowering. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots after flowers fade.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Corylus avellana, HAZEL

Large, coarse leaves make this deciduous shrub unattractive as a bonsai in summer, but in winter its structure and twigs can be appreciated. It produces yellow, fuzzy catkins in late winter, and nuts the following fall. Suits all styles, except broom and literati, and for medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer.
Watering: Daily during summer. Keep soil moist, especially when nuts are swelling.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new shoots as they grow.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering.

Corylus heterophylla, JAPANESE HAZEL

This is like C. avellana, but the leaves are smaller.

See C. avellana for styles, sizes, and care.

Cotinus coggygria, SMOKE TREE

A deciduous shrub with smooth, rounded leaves that turn orange-red in the fall. In summer, the pale, plume-like flowers look like smoke. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles; medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Sun or shade.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks from spring until flowering, then monthly until late summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth throughout growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Cotoneaster adpressus, COTONEASTER

In early spring, pink flowers speckle this small, deciduous shrub. In the fall, the small leaves turn scarlet, and the shrub produces bright red fruits. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, and clump styles are all suitable, as are extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Every two weeks until flowering; monthly to late summer.
Repotting: Annually in early spring for first ten years, then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim old branches in early spring, new shoots in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Cotoneaster adpressus praecox, COTONEASTER

The autumn tints of this deciduous, small, flowering shrub are more brilliant and the fruits are brighter than those of C. adpressus.

See C. adpressus for styles, sizes, and care.

Cotoneaster congestus, DWARF COTONEASTER

This tiny, evergreen shrub has oval leaves, white flowers, and red fruits. See C. adpressus for styles, sizes, and care.

Cotoneaster conspicuus decorus, COTONEASTER

A small-leaved, evergreen shrub that produces fragrant, white flowers, which open fully like those
of a wild rose. The fruits are red.

Repotting: Each year in late spring for the first ten years, then as necessary.

See C. adpressus for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Cotoneaster horizontatis, ROCKSPRAY COTONEASTER

This evergreen shrub has small, round, dark green leaves that turn red in the fall. In spring, it bears pink flowers, and red fruit.

See C. adpressus for styles, sizes, and care.

Cotoneaster microphyilus, COTONEASTER

This evergreen shrub bears slender, pointed, glossy, dark green leaves. The flowers are white, the fruits red.

See C. adpressus for styles, sizes, and care.

Cotoneaster ‘Skogholm', COTONEASTER

Large, coral-red, oval fruits distinguish this dwarf, evergreen flowering shrub.

See C. adpressus for styles, sizes, and care.

Crassula arborescens, JADE PLANT

An evergreen succulent with smooth, round leaves and pink flowers. Suits informal upright, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in medium to large sizes.

Position: Full sun, warm site. Minimum temperature 50°F (10°C).
Watering: Moderately, every three to four weeks if conditions are cool.
Feeding: Monthly from late spring to early fall.
Repotting: Every other spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: In spring, pinch back new shoots; in growing season, prune branches. Remove leaves from trunk.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Crataegus cuneata, JAPANESE HAWTHORN

This deciduous tree has small, lobed leaves. In spring, it produces white flowers and large, rosehip-type fruits. Best for all styles, except formal upright and broom, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect small trees from frost.
Watering: Plenty each day in growing season. Keep moist. Spray against mildew.
Feeding: Twice a month during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring or early fall. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch out terminal shoots in spring. Prune branches after flowering or leaf fall.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Crataegus laevigata (C. oxyacantha), ENGLISH HAWTHORN

A deciduous tree with white flowers and, in the fall, orange-red fruits.

Propagation: Cuttings; seeds; grafting (hybrids).

See C. cuneata for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Crataegus laevigata ‘Paul's Scarlet', DOUBLE RED-FLOWERING HAWTHORN

A hybrid that produces scarlet double flowers, but rarely fruits.

Propagation: Grafting.

See C. cuneata for styles, sizes, and care.

Crataegus monogyna, COMMON HAWTHORN

This deciduous tree bears extremely fragrant, white flowers that give way in the fall to red fruits called haws.

See C. cuneata for styles, sizes, and care.

Crataegus oxyacantha, see Crataegus laevigata.

Cryptomeria japonica, JAPANESE CEDAR

The needle-like foliage of this evergreen conifer is a bright blue-green. The red-brown bark peels away in strips. The best styles are formal upright, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, and group; best sizes are medium to large.

Position: Full sun; some shade in summer. Protect from frost and winds.
Watering: Water and mist-spray daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks, from spring to late fall.
Repotting: Every other year in mid spring, or every five years for older trees. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch back new growth in growing season.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Yatsubusa', DWARF JAPANESE CEDAR

This dwarf variety is narrowly conical, with compact foliage. Best for formal upright, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, and group styles, and especially rock planting and saikei styles; extra-small to medium sizes.

See C. japonica for care.

Cydonia oblonga, COMMON QUINCE

A deciduous tree similar to Chaenomeles sinensis, the Chinese quince. This bears pink and white single flowers, followed in the fall by golden fruits. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, straight line, sinuous, and group styles are all suitable. Grow it in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two to three weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other year in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Allow new shoots to develop and lengthen before shortening and wiring.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering; air layering.

Daphne burkwoodii, DAPHNE

This semi-evergreen shrub has oval leaves and, in early summer, scented, pink flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and saikei styles; small and medium sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowers fade.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Daphne odora, DAPHNE

An evergreen shrub with fragrant, pink flowers in winter and early spring.

Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.

See D. burkwoodii for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Deutzia gracilis, DEUTZIA

In early summer, pure white flowers cluster on this deciduous shrub. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles; medium and large sizes.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer. Protect from spring frosts.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks throughout growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Cut back hard after flowering. Shorten the ensuing new shoots.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Deutzia scabra, DEUTZIA

Several cultivars of this deciduous shrub exist, with single or double flowers in white and shades of pink.

See D. gracilis for styles, sizes, and care

Diospyros kaki, CHINESE PERSIMMON

The autumn color of this deciduous tree is purple and orange; the tomato-like, edible fruits are orange. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, literati, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous, and group styles; medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth during summer.
Propagation: Grafting; layering; air layering.

Ehretia buxifolia, see Carmona microphylla.

Elaeagnus multiflora, ELAEAGNUS

This deciduous shrub has green leaves with silvery undersides, small, fragrant cream flowers in spring, and in midsummer, blood-red fruits. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, and cascade styles, in small to large sizes.

Position: Sun or shade. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim developing shoots.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Elaeagnus pungens, THORNY ELAEAGNUS

The shiny leaves on this evergreen shrub have white undersides speckled with brown. In the fall, it bears fragrant, cream flowers. See E. multiflora for styles, sizes, and care.

Enkianthus campanulatus, ENKIANTHUS

In the fall, the smallish, dark green leaves on this lime-hating, deciduous shrub turn brilliant yellow, orange-red, and purple. In spring, creamy-white, bell-like flowers are produced. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and group styles; small to large sizes.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks in summer. Use acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Each early spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new shoots to shape.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Escallonia ‘Apple blossom', ESCALLONIA

A shrub with small, glossy, evergreen leaves, and apple blossom-like flowers in pink and white. There are many cultivars and hybrids, with red, pink, or white flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles; all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost and cold winds.
Watering: Daily in summer. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Every second year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Prune hard after flowering, then trim new shoots as they grow.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Euonymus alatus
Fascinating purple-pink autumn color, and ridged, corky “winged” bark adorn this deciduous shrub. Suitable for all styles, except broom, and all sizes.

Position: Full light, some sun. Protect small trees from frost.
Watering: Daily during summer; keep moist always. Mist-spray in growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks, from late spring to late summer.
Repotting: Annually in early spring for first ten years, then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots in spring, and two or three times during growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Euonymus europaeus, EUROPEAN SPINDLE

A deciduous tree with scarlet seed capsules.

Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See E. alatus for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Euonymus sieboldianus
Pale green flowers, pinkish-white fruits, and red seeds are features of this deciduous tree.

Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering; air layering.

See E. alatus for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Fagus crenata, JAPANESE WHITE BEECH

In the fall, the deciduous foliage turns bronze. The bark is pale gray. Suits formal upright, informal upright, slanting, twin-trunk, clump, and group styles, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun, part shade in summer. Protect young leaves from wind.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks, from a month after leaves appear to late summer.
Repotting: Every other spring for first ten years, then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch back growing tips in spring.
Propagation: Seeds.

Fagus japonica, JAPANESE BLACK BEECH

This small tree's leaves are deciduous, oval, and bright green.
See F. crenata for styles, sizes, and care.

Fagus sylvatica, EUROPEAN BEECH

This large tree has vivid green, deciduous leaves, whose bronze autumn color lasts a long time. The bark is smooth and gray.

See F. crenata for styles, sizes, and care.

Fagus sylvatica heterophylla, FERN-LEAVED BEECH

This variety has deeply cut, lobed leaves.

Propagation: Cuttings; grafting.

See F. crenata for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Fagus sylvatica ‘Riversii', PURPLE BEECH

A form with purple-black leaves.

Propagation: Cuttings; grafting.

See F. crenata for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Fagus sylvatica ‘Rohanii', PURPLE FERN-LEAVED BEECH

Deep-cut purple leaves distinguish this graceful tree.

Propagation: Cuttings; grafting.

See F. crenata for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Ficus benjamina, WEEPING FIG

In temperate countries, this tender evergreen is grown as a houseplant. The weeping stems have pointed, oval leaves, variegated in some forms. Suits all styles, except literati, and medium to large sizes.

Position: Tolerates low light; protect from frost and draughts. Minimum temperature 60°F (15°C).
Watering: Plentifully during summer; keep moist always. Mist-spray for humidity.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots throughout growing season. Seal large cuts or they exude milky sap.
Propagation: Cuttings; air layering.

Ficus platypoda, AUSTRALIAN FIG

In nature, this tender tree often has more than one trunk. It has smooth, elliptic, evergreen leaves and small, orange-red flowers.

See F. benjamina for styles, sizes, and care.

Ficus pumila, CREEPING FIG

The evergreen leaves on this tender climbing shrub are oval to heart-shaped; they are smaller on younger plants.

See F. benjamina for styles, sizes, and care.

Ficus retusa, BANYAN FIG

The leaves of this tender, banyan-like tree are small, glossy, and leathery.

See F. benjamina for styles, sizes, and care.

Forsythia intermedia, FORSYTHJA

This deciduous shrub is grown mostly for the bright golden yellow, bell-shaped flowers in spring, because most varieties except dwarf ones are coarse-growing. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles; all sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily in growing season, sparsely in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other year in the fall or late winter. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Prune branches back hard after flowering. Trim shoots to shape.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Forsythia intermedia ‘Minigold', DWARF FORSYTHIA

A compact dwarf form. See F. intermedia for styles, sizes, and care Fortunella hindsii, Dwarf orange Fruits like miniature oranges, as well as small, fragrant, white flowers, and glossy, oval leaves are features of this tender, evergreen shrub. All styles except broom and literati; extra-small to large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Warm location, minimum temperature 40°F(4°C).
Watering: Daily during summer, weekly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every two to three years in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new shoots as they grow.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; grafting.

Fraxinus excelsior, COMMON or EUROPEAN ASH

A deciduous tree that is very hardy, but has a coarse structure with large, compound leaves. It has white flowers in mid spring, and good autumn color. Informal upright, slanting, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles; large or extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during summer, sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim shoots back hard continually to keep their shape neat and compact.
Propagation: Seeds; layering; air layering.

Fuchsia x bacillaris (microphylla x thymifolia), FUCHSIA

The flowers on this shrub open bright crimson, and darken as they age. The outer petals tend to curve backwards. It does not flower as profusely as other fuchsias. The deciduous leaves are smallish, leathery, and oval. Suitable for informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, and root-over-rock styles, and extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun. Minimum temperature 45°F (7°C).
Watering: Daily in growing season. Dry out between waterings in winter, but mist-spray to keep humid.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch back new growth in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Fuchsia ‘Lady Thumb'

This deciduous, dwarf form produces a profusion of white and pink flowers.

See F. x bacillaris for styles, sizes, and care.

Fuchsia microphylla, DWARF FUCHSIA

A dwarf fuchsia with small, drooping, red flowers and dark green, deciduous leaves.

See F. x bacillaris for styles, sizes, and care.

Fuchsia ‘Tom Thumb'

A profusion of scarlet and violet flowers is the characteristic of this deciduous, dwarf variety.

See F. x bacillaris for styles, sizes, and care.

Gardenia jasminoides radicans, GARDENIA This lime-hating, tender shrub bears shiny, dark green, evergreen leaves, and fragrant, white flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles are good, as are all sizes.

Position: Avoid full sun, but give maximum light, with slight shade in summer. Minimum temperature 55°F (13°C).
Watering: Daily during summer, more sparingly in winter. Use lime-free water.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer, monthly otherwise. Use acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Every other year in late spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowering, and continue to maintain shape.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Gingko biloba, MAIDENHAIR TREE

In autumn, the deciduous, broad leaves of this conifer turn gold, and yellowish fruits appear. Best styles are informal upright and clump, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun, some shade for young trees. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep dry in winter.
Feeding: Twice a month, from spring to midsummer.
Repotting: Each early spring, for first ten years, then every other year. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth in spring and fall.
Propagation: Seeds; air layering; cuttings.

Gleditsia triacanthos, HONEY LOCUST

A deciduous tree with frond-like leaves that turn pale yellow in the fall. It has three-pointed thorns, and long, brown seed pods. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, and twin-trunk styles, in small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun, protect from frost.
Watering: Daily throughout growing season; sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots as they grow. Prune branches in winter.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Hamamelis japonica, JAPANESE WITCH HAZEL

This deciduous shrub is grown for the effect of its small, yellow flowers, borne on bare branches from midwinter to early spring. In the fall, the leaves turn a lovely orange color. Grow it in informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and group styles, and in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks in summer.
Repotting: Every other year, in late fall, or in early spring after flowering. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth to shape during summer.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering; grafting.

Hamamelis mollis, CHINESE WITCH HAZEL

This deciduous shrub is similar to H. japonica, but its flowers are larger, earlier, and more fragrant. The oval leaves turn yellow in the fall.

See H. japonica for styles, sizes, and care

Ilex crenata, JAPANESE HOLLY

This slow-growing evergreen has small, smooth leaves, neat twigs, and tiny, white flowers. In the fall, female plants bear shiny, black fruits. All styles, except broom; extra-small to large sizes.

Position: Sun or shade. Protect from frost and freezing winds.
Watering: Daily in summer; less often in winter. Mist-spray daily in summer, if not in full sun.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Clip young trees constantly. Trim new growth to shape as needed.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Ilex crenata ‘Convexa'

This variety is more compact than I. crenata, and has glossy, convex leaves. See I. crenata for styles, sizes, and care.

Ilex crenata ‘Stokes'

A dwarf form with tiny leaves. See I. crenata for styles, sizes, and care.

Ilex serrata (I. sieboldii), JAPANESE WINTERBERRY

In the fall, the thin, serrated leaves on this deciduous tree turn a variety of shades from yellow to purple. If grown near a male plant, female plants bear red fruits. All styles and sizes are suitable.

Position: Sun or shade. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily all summer. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Each early spring for first ten years, then every other year. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Remove unwanted shoots and trim others throughout summer.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings, air layering.

Ilex serrata ‘Leucocarpa', WHITE JAPANESE WINTERBERRY

A form of I. serrata that produces white berries.

See I. serrata for styles, sizes and care.

Ilex serrata ‘Subtilis' (‘Koshobai'), DWARF JAPANESE WINTERBERRY

This miniature has unusually small leaves and fruits. It is a hermaphrodite, so it produces berries freely, and acts as a pollinator for female trees of the main species. It is suitable only for extra-small and small sizes. See I. serrata for styles, and care.

Ilex sieboldii, see Ilex serrata.

Jacaranda mimosifolia, see Jacaranda ovalifolia.

Jacaranda ovalifolia (J. mimosifolia), JACARANDA

A tender, lime-hating tree with deciduous, fem-like leaves and, in spring, violet flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and saikei styles; small to large sizes.

Position: Maximum light, but protect from direct sun. Warm location, minimum temperature 60°F (16°C).
Watering: Daily with lime-free water.
Feeding: Every two weeks in summer. Use acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Every other spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch soft terminal shoots to shape.
Propagation: Seeds.

Jasminum midiflorum, WINTER JASMINE

This deciduous shrub has narrow, dark green leaves. In winter, starry, yellow flowers stud the bare branches. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun, some shade in summer. Protect from bad frosts.
Watering: Daily during summer. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Two or three times a month from end of flowering to late summer.
Repotting: Annually, in fall. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: In late spring and fall, trim new shoots.
Propagation: Cuttings; air layering.

Jasminum officinale, COMMON WHITE JASMINE

This shrub has evergreen, pinnate leaves and, in summer, fragrant, white flowers. The best styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, and clump. It is suitable for all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other late spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim shoots after flowers fade, and new shoots in late spring or early fall.
Propagation: Cuttings; air layering.

Juniperus communis, COMMON JUNIPER

An evergreen conifer with many cultivars. The foliage is needle-like, the pale undersides banded on top with white. The fruits are black.

Watering: Daily throughout growing season, mist spray in summer.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

See J. x media ‘Blaauw' for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Juniperus x media ‘Blaauw', CHINESE JUNIPER

This evergreen shrub conifer has shaggy bark and gray-blue, scale-like foliage. All styles, except broom, and all sizes are suitable.

Position: Full light; some shade in summer. Protect from hard frosts.
Watering: Daily during summer, and mist-spray. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Every other week throughout growing season to mid fall.
Repotting: Every other year, in early spring, for first ten years, then up to every five years as needed. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch back tips of new shoots throughout growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Juniperus procumbens, CREEPING JUNIPER

A prostrate dwarf conifer with tight, needles. See J. x media ‘Blaauw' for styles, sizes, and care.

Juniperus rigida, NEEDLE JUNIPER

Over two years, the green berries on this juniper ripen to purple-black. The evergreen foliage is needle-like. Good in all styles, except broom, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during summer, and mist-spray. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks from spring to early fall.
Repotting: Every other year, in early to mid spring, until ten years old, then up to every five years as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: During growing season, pinch out tips of new shoots. Prune to let in light.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Juniperus sargentii, CHINESE or SARGENT'S JUNIPER

The gray-green foliage on this evergreen conifer is needle-like when juvenile, smoothly scale-like when mature. The berries are blue-black. See J. x media ‘Blaauw' for styles, sizes, and care.

Juniperus squamata ‘Meyeri', BLUE JUNIPER

An evergreen conifer notable for its rough, shaggy bark, and grayish-blue needles with a fine “bloom”.

Watering: Daily in growing season, mist spray in summer.
See J. x media ‘Blaauw' for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Laburnum alpinum, SCOTCH LABURNUM or GOLDEN RAIN TREE

A very hardy tree with deciduous, compound leaves and, in late spring and early summer, drooping racemes of yellow flowers. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk styles; in small to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim shoots to two or three buds.
Propagation: Seeds.

Laburnum anagyroides, COMMON LABURNUM or GOLDEN RAIN TREE

This deciduous tree is similar to L. alpinum, but the racemes are shorter, and flower earlier. See L. alpinum for styles, sizes, and care.

Lagerstroemia indica, CRAPE MYRTLE

A trunk mottled in gray, pink, and cinnamon is a feature of this deciduous tree. In summer, the flowers are white or shades of pink or mauve. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, and root-over-rock styles, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Cool in winter; protect from frost.
Watering: Daily from spring to late fall. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots in late spring and late fall.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Larix decidua, EUROPEAN LARCH

The needle-like foliage on this deciduous conifer is bright green in spring, and gold in the fall. Suits all styles, except broom, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun, in cool dry site. Protect small trees from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Before buds are green in early spring, every year. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch back new growth in growing season.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering.

Larix kaempferi (Larix leptolepis), JAPANESE LARCH

This deciduous conifer has broader leaves than L. decidua. The red-orange new twigs darken by winter to almost purple.

See L. decidua for styles, sizes, and care.

Larix laricina, TAMARACK or AMERICAN LARCH

A deciduous conifer with longer and looser needles, as well as smaller flowers and cones, than other larches. See L. decidua for styles, sizes, and care.

Larix leptolepis, see Larix kaempferi.

Ligustrum ovalifolium, OVAL-LEAF PRIVET

White summer flowers and small, oval, semi-evergreen leaves are the features of this shrub. Grow it in informal upright, slanting, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, and group styles, and in all sizes.

Position: Full sun or shade.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim shoots after flowering, new growth throughout growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; seeds.

Ligustrum vulgare, COMMON PRIVET

A semi-evergreen shrub with dark, glossy leaves.

See L. ovalifolium for styles, sizes, and care.

Liquidambar styraciflua, SWEET GUM

In the fall, superb orange, red, and deep purple foliage cloths this deciduous tree. All styles, except literati and broom, and all sizes are suitable.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season, sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new shoots as they grow.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Lonicera japonica, JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE

This vigorous climber has semi-evergreen, oval leaves and, in early summer, scented, white flowers, that fade to yellow. Grow it in informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun; part shade in summer. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Every two weeks in summer.
Repotting: Every other year in late spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim hard back during growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Lonicera nitida. DWARF HONEYSUCKLE
This dwarf shrubby honeysuckle has small, evergreen leaves and responds well to constant clipping.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See L. japonica for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Magnolia stellata, STAR MAGNOLIA

Fragrant, white, starry flowers on this slow-growing, deciduous shrub appear before the leaves in late spring. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles are suitable, as are medium and large sizes.

Position: Full sun or shade. Protect flowers from spring frosts.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Do not allow soil to dry out at any time.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every three to four years in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Shape by shortening new shoots.
Propagation: Division; layering.

Malus cerasifera, NAGASAKI CRAB APPLE

The many pink flower buds on this deciduous tree open to white, and turn into cherry-like, red fruits. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect roots in shallow pots from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep moist when fruiting. Spray against mildew.
Feeding: Weekly from early spring to flowering, and after fruit develops to fall.
Repotting: Annually, before bud burst in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Finger prune new shoots in spring. Trim long shoots in fall.
Propagation: Grafting; layering; air layering.

Malus ‘Golden hornet', GOLDEN HORNET CRAB APPLE

The white flowers on this tree are followed by bright yellow fruits, which remain after the leaves fall.

See M. cerasifera for styles, sizes, and care.

Malus halliana, HALL'S CRAB APPLE

This tree has narrow, dark green, deciduous leaves. Small, purple fruits follow the pink blossom.

See M. cerasifera for styles, sizes, and care.

Malus ‘Profusion', PURPLE CRAB APPLE

A tree with purple deciduous leaves, wine-red flowers, and deep red fruits.

See M. cerasifera for styles, sizes, and care.

Malus ‘Red jade', WEEPING CRAB APPLE

The young leaves on this weeping tree are bright green. The pink and white flowers are followed by small, red fruits, which hang on the tree all winter.

See M. cerasifera for styles, sizes, and care.

Malus sieboldii (M. toringo), CRAB APPLE

The pink buds on this small-leaved tree open as small, white flowers. The tiny crab apples are yellow or red.

See M. cerasifera for styles, sizes, and care.

Malus sylvestris, COMMON CRAB APPLE

A small deciduous tree, often with spurs, and toothed, oval leaves. The flowers are white or suffused with pink, and turn into red-flushed or yellow-green fruits.

Propagation: Grafting; layering; air layering; seeds.

See M. cerasifera for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Malus toringo, see Malus sieboldii.

Millettia japonica ‘Microphylla', DWARF WISTERIA

The common name of this compact, evergreen climber derives from its minute compound leaves, which look very like those of a wisteria. It seldom flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, and clump styles are suitable, as are extra-small and small sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Generously during year.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Annually in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowers fade, and throughout summer.
Propagation: Division; cuttings; layering.

Morus alba, WHITE MULBERRY

This deciduous tree has heart-shaped leaves and, in the fall, reddish, edible fruits. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks, spring to fall; use high-potash feed from late summer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth to two leaves.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; air layering; layering.

Murraya paniculata, ORANGE JESSAMINE

This shrub has small, pinnate, evergreen leaves. The white, bell-shaped flowers are scented. They are followed by orange-like fruits. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and group styles, in all sizes.

Position: Full sun; some shade in summer. Indoors in temperate areas. Minimum temperature 63°F (17°C).
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep always moist and humid.
Feeding: Every two weeks, mid spring to early fall; every four to six weeks in winter.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Myrtus apiculata, MYRTLE

The cinnamon-colored bark on this small, tender tree peels to show cream underneath. The oval, evergreen leaves are dull green. The small, white flowers of summer are followed by red and black fruits. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, and multiple-trunk styles, in all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from cold and frost.
Watering: Daily in summer. Keep soil always moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim snoots to shape as they grow.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Myrtus communis, COMMON MYRTLE

This shrub has aromatic, evergreen foliage. The white flowers of summer are followed by black fruits.

Repotting: Every other year in spring. Basic soil mix.

See M. apiculata for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Nandina domestica, SACRED or HEAVENLY BAMBOO

An evergreen shrub with long, narrow leaves flushed with red in spring and fall. Suitable for twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and saikei styles, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun, partial shade in summer. Protect from frost in winter.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every second year in spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots to shape.
Propagation: Cuttings; division; grafting; seeds.

Nothofagus antarctica, ANTARCTIC BEECH

This deciduous tree has small, glossy, heart-shaped leaves. The foliage is dark green, but turns bright yellow in the fall. Suitable for all styles except literati, and for all sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during summer.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots during summer. Prune branches in winter.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; layering; air layering.

Nothofagus procera, SOUTHERN BEECH

A fast-growing, deciduous tree with prominently veined leaves that color well in the fall.

See N. antarctica for styles, sizes, and care.

Olea europaea, OLIVE

The light-gray bark on this tender, evergreen tree becomes gnarled with age. The shiny, narrow, dark green leaves have light gray undersides. Its insignificant, cream flowers develop into green fruits, which ripen to black. Suitable for all styles except broom, and for small to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Warm location, minimum temperature 45°F (7°C).
Watering: Every other day during summer, weekly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch back new shoots in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Osmanthus delavayi, OSMANTHUS

This evergreen shrub bears small, holly-like leaves and, in spring, fragrant, white flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and group styles; all sizes.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim shoots after flowers fade, then subsequent shoots as they occur.
Propagation: Cuttings; grafting; layering.

Phyllostachys aurea, GOLDEN or BUDDHA'S BELLY BAMBOO

The bright green canes on this evergreen turn yellow as they mature. Clump and multiple-trunk styles; medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Partial shade. Keep warm during winter.
Watering: Daily during summer. Less often at other times, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other year in late spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Remove central bud when desired height is reached.
Propagation: Division.

Phyllostachys nigra, BLACK BAMBOO

A clump-forming bamboo with striking stems that are green in their first year, and deep black the next.

See P. aurea for styles, sizes, and care.

Picea abies, NORWAY SPRUCE

This evergreen conifer has dark green, needle-like leaves, reddish shoots, and cylindrical cones. It is suitable for medium to large sizes. All styles, except broom, are suitable, in medium to large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect small trees from frost.
Watering: Daily during summer, and mist-spray. Sparingly in winter, but keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks, early spring to mid fall.
Repotting: Every other year, before bud burst in early spring or in fall. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Finger prune growing tips in spring and summer.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Picea abies ‘Echiniformi's, DWARF SPRUCE

This compact dwarf is slow-growing and has tightly congested foliage. Suits extra-small and small sizes.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See P. abies for styles and other care details.

Picea abies ‘Little Gem', DWARF SPRUCE

A very compact dwarf form with tiny leaves. Suitable for extra-small to medium sizes.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See P. abies for styles and other care details.

Picea abies ‘Nidiformis', BIRD'S NEST SPRUCE

A dwarf variety with fresh green buds. See P. abies ‘Little Gem' for styles, sizes, and care.

Picea glauca albertiana ‘ Conica', DWARF ALBERTA WHITE SPRUCE

This slow-growing, dwarf evergreen conifer has a compact, conical habit. Suits small to large sizes.

Propagation: Cuttings.

See P. abies for styles and other care details.

Picea glehnii, SAKHALIN SPRUCE

This evergreen conifer is the preferred spruce species in Japan. It is a slender, conical tree, with blue-green leaves, and red-brown, flaking bark. Export from Japan is now banned, but stocks still exist, and seed is freely available. See P. abies for styles, sizes, and care.

Picea glehnii ‘Yatsubusa', DWARF SAKHALIN SPRUCE

This dwarf form of P. glehnii is almost identical in appearance to P. abies ‘Little Gem'.

See P. abies ‘Little Gem' for styles, sizes, and care.

Picea jezoensis, YEZO or EDO SPRUCE The dark green leaves on this evergreen conifer are white underneath. The young shoots are light brown.

See P. abies for styles, sizes, and care.

Picea mariana ‘Nana', DWARF BLACK SPRUCE

This dwarf evergreen has gray-green, needles.

See P. abies ‘Little Gem' for styles, sizes, and care.

Pieris japonica (Andromeda japonica), PIERIS

A lime-hating shrub with shiny, evergreen leaves that are copper-colored when young. In spring, it bears panicles of white flowers. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, and clump styles, in small to large sizes.

Position: Slight shade.
Watering: Daily during summer. Use lime-free water.
Feeding: Every two weeks. Acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Every three or four years in early spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new shoots in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Pinus densiflora, JAPANESE RED PINE

The blue-green needles on this evergreen conifer grow in pairs. The bark is reddish. All styles except broom are suitable, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost and cold winds.
Watering: Daily during summer, unless soil is already moist, and mist-spray. Sparingly in winter. Keep fairly dry.
Feeding: Monthly from midwinter to mid fall.
Repotting: Every two to five years in early to mid spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Annually in spring, finger prune candles; every other year in early fall, prune branch tips.
Propagation: Grafting; seeds.

Pinus mugo, MUGHO PINE

A small evergreen conifer with dark green needles and light green shoots. All styles, except broom, are good, as are all sizes; dwarf forms are best in clasped-to-rock style and smaller sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from hard frosts and cold winds.
Watering: Daily during summer, and mist-spray. Sparingly in winter; keep quite dry.
Feeding: Every three to four weeks, from spring to early winter.
Repotting: Every three to five years in early to mid spring or late summer. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Finger prune candles throughout growing season.
Propagation: Seeds; grafting (dwarf forms).

Pinus parviflora (P. pentaphylla), JAPANESE WHITE or FIVE-NEEDLED PINE

This evergreen conifer carries its twisted bluish needles in bundles of five. It has smooth gray bark, and small flowers, that, if fertilized, turn into dark brown cones.

See P. mugo for styles and sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from cold winds and frost.
Watering: Daily during summer, and mist-spray. Sparingly in winter; keep quite dry.
Feeding: Every three to four weeks, spring to early winter.
Repotting: Every two to five years in early to mid spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Each spring, finger prune candles. Prune branches every other year in early fall.
Propagation: Grafting on to P. thunbergii; seeds.

Pinus parviflora ‘Kokonoe', DWARF JAPANESE WHITE PINE

The dark green needles of this dwarf ‘Yatsubusa' form are thick and slightly twisted. Very popular for small and extra-small sizes.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. parviflora for styles and other care details.

Pinus parviflora ‘Miyajima', DWARF JAPANESE WHITE PINE

This cultivar is among the most popular for bonsai, because of its compact growth and small, stiff, straight needles. Suitable for small and extra-small sizes.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. parviflora for styles and other care details.

Pinus pentaphylla, see Pinus parviflora.

Pinus pumila, DWARF SIBERIAN PINE

This conifer is a dwarf, with blue-green leaves in bundles of five, and red-brown young shoots.

Feeding: Monthly from midwinter to mid fall.

See P. parviflora for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Pinus sylvestris, SCOTCH or SCOT'S PINE

A distinctive, evergreen conifer with spreading outline and flattened top. The flaking bark is orange; the short, blue-green needles grow in pairs. Suits all styles, except broom, in all sizes; literati style is especially good.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost and cold winds.
Watering: Water when soil is drying out; moderately in growing season, sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every three to four weeks, spring to early winter.
Repotting: Every two to five years in early to mid spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Remove long shoots throughout growing season, and old needles and overcrowded twigs in late summer. Pinch back candles when they appear.
Propagation: Seeds; grafting (cultivars).

Pinus sylvestris ‘Beuvronensis', DWARF SCOTS PINE

This dwarf form is very compact with short needles.

Propagation: Grafting on to P. sylvestris.

See P. sylvestris for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Pinus sylvestris ‘Watereri', DWARF SCOTS PINE

This variety is very slow-growing.

Propagation: Grafting on to P. sylvestris.

See P. sylvestris for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Pinus thunbergii JAPANESE BLACK PINE
This conifer has craggy bark and brown young shoots. The long, thick, stiff needles are dark green and carried in pairs.

Watering: Water when soil is drying out. Plentifully if soil is free-draining. Very sparingly in winter.
Propagation: Seeds.

See P. sylvestris for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Podocarpus chinensis, see Podocarpus macrophyllus.

Podocarpus macrophyllus (P. chinensis), CHINESE PODOCARPUS

This slow-growing evergreen has yew-like foliage. Suitable for formal upright, informal upright, slanting, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and group styles, as well as all sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks from spring to fall, every four to six weeks in winter.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Finger pinch new shoots in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Potentilla fruticosa, POTENTILLA

The bark of this deciduous shrub is shaggy and old-looking even when young. The gray-green leaves are small and divided. In summer, yellow, buttercup-like flowers are produced. There are many cultivars with a variety of habits and flower colors. All styles except literati are suitable, in extra-small to large sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Do not allow soil to dry out at any time.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Continually trim back new shoots to maintain neat and compact growth.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

Prunus avium, GEAN or WILD CHERRY

With age, the smooth, gray bark of this tree turns red, cracks, and peels. Attractive features are the white spring blossom, small, reddish-purple fruits in the fall, and deciduous foliage that turns crimson in the fall. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous, multiple-trunk, group, and saikei styles are suitable. The wild cherry looks good in all sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new growth to create and maintain a good shape.
Propagation: Seeds.

Prunus cerasifera ‘Pissardii', PURPLE-LEAVED PLUM

In the fall, the dark red foliage of this tree turns deep purple. In early spring, there are masses of pink buds, that open to white. The fruits are purple.
Propagation: Grafting; cuttings. See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus dulcis, ALMOND

In late winter and early spring, delicate pink flowers appear on this tree's bare branches.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus ‘Hally Jolivette', “HALLY JOLIVETTE' CHERRY
This elegant tree has delicate twigs and, in spring, small, semi-double flowers that are white flushed pink.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus incisa, FUJI CHERRY

In the fall, the foliage of this tree turns orange. It bears a profusion of pinkish-white blossom.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details. Prunus mume,

JAPANESE FLOWERING APRICOT
This classic bonsai subject is called the flowering or wild plum in Japan. In late winter, the angular branches bear single or double flowers in whites, pinks, and reds (sometimes on the same tree). Suits all styles, except formal upright and broom, in all
sizes; literati is most popular.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season; keep moist while flowering. Sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks or more in summer.
Repotting: Annually before flowering, in late winter. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim hard after flowering. Trim rampant growth in fall.
Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering.

Prunus padus, BIRD CHERRY

Small, bitter, purple-black fruits follow the spikes of small, white, scented flowers.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and care.

Prunus persica, PEACH

The pale pink flowers on this tree in early spring are followed by the familiar edible, golden-red fruits. There are many ornamental varieties, which are more often used in bonsai.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus persica ‘Alboplena'

A peach cultivar with double, white flowers.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus persica ‘Russell's Red',
This peach tree has double, crimson flowers.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus salicina, JAPANESE PLUM

In spring, small, white flowers are carried on the bare wood. In the fall, the leaves turn bright red.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus serrulata, FLOWERING CHERRY

This tree is the parent of many cultivars bred for the garden, but it also makes a good bonsai. Single, double, or semi-double flowers appear from late winter to late spring, in white, pink, or red. All styles, except broom, are suitable, in all sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect tree from frost, flowerbuds from birds, and open flowers from rain.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep just moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks from end of flowering to late summer.
Repotting: Every year, before bud burst in late spring, or late fall. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim after flowering. Prune tips of new shoots in summer, as they grow.
Propagation: Grafting.

Prunus serrulata ‘Hisakura', FLOWERING CHERRY

A tree with deep pink, single flowers. See P. serrulata for styles, sizes, and care.

Prunus serrulata ‘Kanzan', FLOWERING CHERRY

Double, purple-pink flowers are the feature of this tree. See P. serrulata for styles, sizes, and care.

Prunus serrulata ‘Kiku-shidare Sakura', FLOWERING CHERRY

In early spring, double pink flowers appear before the leaves on this cultivar.

See P. serrulata for styles, sizes, and care.

Prunus spinosa, BLACKTHORN or SLOE

In early spring, small, white flowers stud the bare spiny branches of this tree, and are followed by black fruits. See P. avium for styles, sizes, and care.

Prunus subhirtella ‘Autumnalis', AUTUMN CHERRY

This is a deciduous tree that has slender, graceful branches and twigs. In the fall, the small, delicate leaves take on bright colors. Semi-double, white flowers appear on the bare branches at intervals from late fall through to early spring.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus subhirtella ‘Autumnalis rosea', PINK AUTUMN CHERRY

This tree has pale pink, semi-double flowers, mostly in spring, but sometimes in flushes throughout the fall and winter.

Propagation: Grafting.

See P. avium for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Prunus tenella, DWARF RUSSIAN ALMOND

In early spring, bright pink flowers cover the branches of this tree. Suitable for all sizes, especially extra-small and small.

Propagation: Grafting; cuttings.

See P. avium for styles and other care details.

Pseudocydonia sinensis, see Chaenomeles sinensis.

Punica granatum, POMEGRANATE

This tender tree has shiny, oblong, deciduous leaves. Scarlet flowers in late summer or early fall precede yellow-red fruits. Best in all styles except formal upright and broom, and in small to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from cold and frosts.
Watering: Daily during growing season, especially when fruit is swelling. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Weekly from start of growing season to flowering.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring for first ten years, then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim non-flowering shoots during growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Punica granatum ‘Nana', DWARF POMEGRANATE

Every aspect of this form is dwarf, from its overall size, to its finer leaves, and smaller flowers and fruits. Especially good for extra-small and small sizes.

See P. granatum for styles and care.

Pyracantha angustifolia, PYRACANTHA or FIRETHORN

An evergreen shrub with glossy, dark green, oval leaves. The small, white flowers of summer precede yellow, orange, or scarlet fruits. Best styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, and clump, in all except extra-large sizes.

Position: Full light or part shade. Protect from cold winds and frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Weekly from early spring to flowering; every two weeks from fruit forming to mid fall.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots in late spring. Prune older wood in early spring or late summer.
Propagation: Cuttings; air layering; layering; seeds.

Pyracantha coccinea, SCARLET FIRETHORN

This shrub with smallish, evergreen leaves has small, white flowers in early summer, followed by bright red fruits. See P. angustifolia for styles, sizes, and care.

Pyracantha coccinea ‘Teton', DWARF FIRETHORN

A compact dwarf form which bears yellowish-orange fruits. It is recommended for the smallest sizes. See P. angustifolia for styles and care.

Quercus cerris, TURKEY OAK

This deciduous tree is tough and fast-growing. Its lobed, downy leaves are gray-green in spring, bronze in the fall. Suits informal upright, slanting, broom, twin-trunk, clump, straight line, sinuous and group styles, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Keep moist.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer and fall.
Repotting: Annually in early spring for first ten years; then every two to three years. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots constantly.
Propagation: Seeds; air layering.

Quercus palustris, PIN OAK

Elegant, slender branches distinguish this deciduous tree. The sharp-pointed, lobed leaves turn rich scarlet in the fall. See Q. cerris for styles, sizes, and care.

Quercus robur, ENGLISH OAK

A long-lived, slow-growing tree. The lobed, deciduous leaves are bright yellow-green, and turn to bronze in the fall.

Watering: Daily in growing season. Keep just moist in winter. Spray against mildew.

See Q. cerris for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Rhododendron indicum (Azalea indica), SATSUKI AZALEA

The hundreds of Satsuki evergreen azaleas have smallish, narrow, dark green leaves. They flower in early summer, in white, pink, red, and purple. Often, different colors, or stripes, speckles or blotches, occur on the same plant. All styles, except broom; in all sizes.

Position: Partial shade. Protect from frost, and from heavy rain when flowering.
Watering: Daily during growing season, and mist-spray, with lime-free water. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Every two weeks from early spring to flowering; then monthly after flowering to early fall. Use lime-free fertilizer.
Repotting: Annually or as needed after flowering. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Remove fading flowers and all new shoots after flowering. Prune secondary shoots to midsummer.
Propagation: Cuttings; air layering.

Rhododendron indicum ‘Hakurei', SATSUKI ‘HAKUREI'

This has creamy-white flowers and small, glossy, dark green leaves with a pointed shape. See if. indicum for styles, sizes, and care.

Rhododendron indicum ‘Kaho', SATSUKI ‘KAHO'

A shrub with large trumpet-type flowers in soft, pale shades of pink. See R. indicum for styles, sizes, and care.

Rhododendron obtusum, JAPANESE KURUME AZALEA

An evergreen or semi-evergreen with red flowers and small, shiny leaves. See R. indicum for styles, sizes, and care.

Ribes sanguineum, FLOWERING CURRANT

In early spring, this deciduous shrub produces racemes of pink flowers. The small, lobed leaves have a characteristic pungent smell. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, and cascade styles are good, as are extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun or shade.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during summer.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Cut back hard after flowering, then shorten subsequent shoots as they grow.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Sageretia theezans, POOR MAN'S TEA

The rough bark of this tender shrub peels off in patches. The small, oval, evergreen leaves are borne on slender branches. It has white summer flowers and blue fruits. Suits all styles and sizes.

Position: Full sun, some shade in summer. Minimum temperatures: summer, 65°F (18°C); winter, 54°F (12°C). Needs high humidity.
Watering: Daily in summer. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks in summer; monthly in winter.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots any time in growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Salix babylonica, WEEPING WILLOW

A deciduous tree with long, narrow leaves on slender, pendent branches. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, twin-trunk, and saikei styles; medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun, some shade in summer. Protect from hard frosts.
Watering: Daily during growing season, more often when hot. Stand in shallow water in midsummer. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks, early spring to late summer.
Repotting: Twice annually, in early spring and midsummer. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim previous year's growth after repotting in early spring.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Salix helvetica, SWISS WILLOW

This bushy shrub has small, downy, gray-green leaves and, in early spring, yellow catkins. The best sizes are extra-small to medium. See S. babylonica for ‘styles and care.

Salix repens, CREEPING WILLOW

This compact willow has small, grayish-green leaves that are silvery-white underneath. In spring, it produces yellow catkins. See S. helvetica for styles, sizes, and care.

Sasa veitchii, DWARF VARIEGATED BAMBOO

An evergreen grass with purple-green canes, and narrow leaves that become variegated in the fall and winter. Good as an accent plant, although not suitable for bonsai.

Position: Slight shade.
Watering: Water plentifully.
Feeding: Weekly during summer.
Repotting: Annually in late spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Remove central shoot to control height, cut down stems to ground level in early summer.
Propagation: Division.

Sequoiadendron giganteum, GIANT SEQUOIA

A conical, evergreen conifer with drooping branches covered in bright green, scale-like foliage. The bark is thick and spongy. Suits formal upright, twin-trunk, and group styles, in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun; part shade in summer. Protect from frost and cold winds.
Watering: Daily during growing season; mist-spray in summer. Sparingly in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks from spring to autumn. repotting Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Pinch out new growth constantly.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Serissa foetida, SNOW ROSE

Masses of small, white flowers appear in summer on this shrub. The evergreen leaves are small and oval; the bark and roots have an unpleasant smell. All styles, except formal upright and broom, are good, in extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun, warm site. Minimum temperature 54°F (12°C).
Watering: Daily during growing season. Mist-spray unless in flower. Keep soil fairly dry in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season; monthly in winter.
Repotting: Every other early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots after repotting.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Sophora japonica, JAPANESE PAGODA TREE

A deciduous tree with pinnate leaves. In late summer, older trees produce white, pea-type flowers. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, twin-trunk, clump, multiple-trunk, and group styles; all sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth constantly to create and maintain shape.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; grafting.

Sorbus aucuparia, ROWAN or MOUNTAIN ASH

In the fall, the pinnate leaves on this deciduous tree turn gold and orange. It has white flowers in spring and red fruits in the fall. Suits all styles, except formal upright and broom, and all sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season. Keep just moist in winter.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season.
Repotting: Each or every other year, before bud burst in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots constantly to create and keep shape.
Propagation: Seeds; grafting (cultivars).

Spiraea japonica, JAPANESE SPIRAEA

From midsummer onwards, flat heads of pink flowers are produced on this deciduous shrub. The leaves are small, toothed, and oval. Informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, clump, and saikei styles are suitable, as are extra-small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other year in spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new growth hard after flowering and again during summer.
Propagation: Cuttings.

Spiraea thunbergii, SPIRAEA

This deciduous shrub produces small, white flowers early in spring. The leaves are narrow and toothed. See S. japonica for styles, sizes, and care.

Stewartia grandiflora, see Stewartia pseudocamellia

Stewartia monodelpha (S. monodelpha), STEWARTIA

In the fall, the oval, deciduous leaves of this lime-hating, dwarf shrub or small tree turn brilliant scarlet and purple. White flowers are produced in summer. The bark is shiny and copper-colored. Formal upright and group styles are suitable, as are small to medium sizes.

Position: Full sun, part shade in summer. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season with lime-free water. Do not allow soil to dry out.
Feeding: Every two weeks in growing season with acid-formula fertilizer.
Repotting: Every other year in early spring. Lime-free soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth constantly to create and keep shape.
Propagation: Cuttings; seeds.

Stewartia pseudocamellia (S. grandiflora), STEWARTIA

A lime-hating shrub or small tree with deciduous foliage that turns a fine red-yellow in the fall. It has white summer flowers, and flaking bark. See S. monodelpha for styles, sizes, and care.

Stuartia monodelpha, see Stewartia monodelpha.

Syringa velutina, KOREAN LILAC

This shrub has oval, deciduous leaves and, in mid spring, lilac-pink flowers with a strong fragrance. Most suitable styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, multiple-trunk, group, or saikei; best sizes are extra-small to medium.

Position: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during growing season.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Every other spring. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowers fade, and again as necessary during summer.
Propagation: Cuttings; division; layering.

Tamarix juniperina, TAMARISK

Purplish or brownish-pink flowers in spring and summer, and scale-like foliage, are the features of this deciduous shrub or small tree. Its fragile, feathery appearance belies its toughness. Best styles are informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock, clasped-to-rock, twin-trunk, and clump; in small to large sizes.

Position: Full sun, slight shade in summer. Protect from hard frost.
Watering: Water well; keep moist always.
Feeding: Every two weeks during growing season.
Repotting: Each or every other year in mid spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Cut back hard in fall.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering.

Taxus baccata, COMMON YEW

This evergreen has dark green, needle-like leaves. Female trees bear bright, pinkish-red fruits. Suits all styles, except broom, and all sizes.

Position: Partial shade.
Watering: Daily during growing season; mist-spray. Keep soil moist in winter.
Feeding: Twice a month in growing season.
Repotting: Every third or fourth spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Finger prune new growth during growing season; wait until after flowering if fruit is needed.
Propagation: Cuttings; layering; air layering.

Taxus cuspidata, JAPANESE YEW

This is very similar to T. baccata, but the leaves are brighter green, with paler undersides. Deep pink fruits with protruding seeds are borne in female trees. See T. baccata for styles, sizes, and care.

Taxus cuspidata ‘Nana', DWARF JAPANESE YEW

This dwarf form has dense foliage. Suits extra-small and small sizes. See T. baccata for styles and care.

Tsuga canadensis, EASTERN HEMLOCK

This graceful conifer is similar to T. heterophylla, but in nature it usually grows with two or more trunks. It has evergreen, needle-like leaves. Suits all styles, except broom, in small to extra-large sizes.

Position: Partial shade. Protect from freezing winds.
Watering: Daily during growing season; mist-spray in summer. Keep soil moist in winter.
Feeding: Twice a month in growing season.
Repotting: Every second year in spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Finger pinch new shoots in growing season.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; grafting (named cultivars).

Tsuga cattadensis ‘Pendula', DWARF HEMLOCK

Slender, arching growth distinguishes this weeping dwarf form. The bright green, new growth contrasts against deeper green, older foliage. Suitable for small and medium sizes.

Propagation: Cuttings; grafting.

See T. canadensis for styles and other care details.

Tsuga heterophylla, WESTERN HEMLOCK

A graceful, delicate conifer. The short, glossy, evergreen, needle-like leaves are light green when young, darkening with age.

Repotting: Every other spring for first ten years, then as needed. Free-draining soil mix.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings.

See T. canadensis for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Ulmus x elegantissima ‘Jacqueline Hillier', JACQUELINE HILLIER ELM

A deciduous tree with a neat, dense habit and small, toothed leaves. Suitable for all styles and sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season, more often if needed in very hot weather. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Weekly for first month after leaf buds open; then every two weeks until late summer.
Repotting: Each early spring. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots during growing season.
Propagation: Cuttings; grafting.

Ulmus glabra, WYCH or SCOTCH ELM

In the fall, the dull green leaves of this deciduous tree turn yellow. The bark is gray-brown.

Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; root cuttings.

See U. x elegantissima ‘Jacqueline Hillier' for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Ulmus parvifolia, CHINESE ELM

This deciduous tree is the best elm for bonsai work. Its small, serrated, bright green leaves last into winter. The roots are long and flexible. Suits all styles and sizes.

Position: Full light and sun. Protect roots from frost.
Watering: Daily during growing season; more often if needed when very hot. Keep moist always.
Feeding: Weekly for a month after leaf buds open, then every two weeks to late summer.
Repotting: Each early spring for first ten years, then as needed. Free-draining soil mix.
Pruning: Trim back new growth in spring.
Propagation: Cuttings; root cuttings.

Ulmus procera, ENGLISH ELM

A deciduous tree with cracked, grayish bark and dark green leaves that turn gold in the fall.

Position: Full light and sun. Protect smaller trees from frost.
Pruning: Trim new shoots during growing season. Leaf cut in midsummer.
Propagation: Cuttings; root cuttings; suckers.

See U. parvifolia for styles, sizes, and other care details.

Wisteria floribunda, JAPANESE WISTERIA

Long racemes of fragrant, bluish-purple flowers in late spring, and bright green, pinnate leaves distinguish this deciduous climber. Suits informal upright, slanting, semi-cascade, cascade, root-over-rock styles; in medium to extra-large sizes.

Position: Full sun. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily in growing season. Stand in shallow water if very hot. Keep moist in winter.
Feeding: Weekly from end of flowering to midsummer, and from early to late fall.
Repotting: Every three years, when flowering ends. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new growth after flowering, and in early summer, midsummer, and fall.
Propagation: Grafting; cuttings; layering; air layering.

Wisteria sinensis, CHINESE WISTERIA

A very vigorous, deciduous climber like W. floribunda, but with shorter racemes and more fragrant flowers. See W. floribunda for styles, sizes, and care.

Zelkova serrata, JAPANESE ELM

In the fall, the serrated, oval leaves of this deciduous tree turn red and bronze. The bark is smooth and gray. Suits all styles, except literati, and particularly broom and group; all sizes.

Position: Full sun, some shade in summer. Protect from frost.
Watering: Daily during summer. Keep always moist.
Feeding: Weekly for month after leaf buds open; every two weeks through summer.
Repotting: Annually for first ten years, in early spring; then as needed. Basic soil mix.
Pruning: Trim new shoots. Remove large leaves during growing season.
Propagation: Seeds; cuttings; air layering.

Zelkova serrata variegata, VARIEGATED JAPANESE GRAY-BARKED ELM

This form is variegated in creamy-white and green. See Z. serrata for styles, sizes, and care.

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